Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics and traits. Biometrics are used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
- Identification – Biometrics can be used to determine a person’s identity. For example, scanning a crowd with a camera and using face recognition technology, one can determine matches against a known database.
- Verification – Biometrics can also be used to verify a person’s identity. For example, one can grant physical access to a secure area in a building by using finger scans or can grant access to a bank account at an ATM by using retinal scan.
Nowadays, biometrics is not just fingerprints. Face, voice and iris recognition are all common place in many walks of life and due to the added security such systems offer, it’s likely we will see it being used more and more over the coming years.
Biometrics solutions use a variety of physical characteristics some are more secure than others. In the following sections, we explore solutions that focus on recognizing the following physical characteristics:
- Facial structure
- Iris patterns
- Vein patterns
- Voice recognition
- Typing behavior
End-User Applications of Biometrics
During last few years,the area of applications of biometrics has been consideraly incressed and is expected that in the near future, biometry will be used in the daily activities many times such as.
- Access Control
- ATMs – the use of Biometrics in the ATM transaction allows more security.
- Online banking – Internet based account access is widely used by people and inclusion of biometric system will enhance the security of online transactions.
- Public Events – Biometrics can be used in many of Public events where only restricted personnels are allowed to enter. Biometrics will not only provide best authentication, but also will save a lot of time.
- Telephony transaction – Voice recognition biometric can be used to make the telephonic-based transaction more secure. In this type of application, when the costomer calls to make a transaction, a biometric system will authenticate the customer’s identity based on his or her voice with no need of any additional device.
- PC/Network access – The use of biometric log-in to local PCs or remotely through network increase the security of the overall system keeping more protected the valuable information.
- Mobiles/ Tablets – We have seen a massive shift in induction of biometrics in mobile devices to unlock the device and also in quick, easy and secure money transactions using mobile phone
- E-commerce – Biometric e-commerce is the use of biometrics to verify the identity of the individual conduct and remote transaction for goods or services.
- Time and attendance monitoring – In this sector biometrics is used for controlling the presence of the individuals. For example, for controlling the time sheet of the employees or the presence of students in the classroom.
- Offices – In this sector the biometrics is used for entry/exit of the individuals and enhancement of security features within the organisation.
- National Identification Cards – The idea is to include digital biometric information in the national identification card containing hundreds of millions samples, corresponding to the whole population of one country.
- Voter ID and Elections – During the registration of voter, the biometric data is captured and stored in the card and in the database for the later use during the voting. The purpose is to prevent the duplicate registration and voting.
- Driver’s licenses – In many countries the driver license is also used as identification document, therefore it is important to prevent the duplicate emission of the driver license under different name. With the use of biometric this problem can be eliminated.
- Military programs – The military has long been interested in biometrics and the technology has enjoyed extensive support from the national security community.
- Identification of criminals-Collecting the evidence from the place of crime(e.g., fingerprints) it is possible to compare with data of suspects or make a search in the database of criminals.
- Surveillance – Using cameras one can monitor the very busy places such as stadiums, airports, meetings, etc. Looking in the crowds for suspect, based on the face recognition biometric, using a images (e.g., mug shots) database of wanted persons or criminals.
- Corrections – In these cases a biometric system can avoid the possibility of accidentally releasing the wrong prisoner, or to ensure that people leaving the facilities are really visitors and not inmates.